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Examine how the violent counter cultural activities of the 1950s and 60s led to the nonviolent social justice movements of the 1970s with co-founder of the Conflict Resolution Graduate Program at Portland State University, Dr. Robert Gould.
The escalation of dissident and counter-cultural activities of the 1950s and 1960s transformed into the beginning stages of the United States culture wars. Violence and mass protests broke out at Kent State (4 students shot by the National Guard) and other campuses, in response to the US invasion of Cambodia. Police and military violence on campus and in African American communities gave rise to the violence of the Weather Underground, the Black Liberation Army, the Symbionese Liberation Army, and other groups trying to trigger a new American Revolution. These efforts failed to achieve their political goals. However, on the cultural side, movements in support of social justice for oppressed groups made huge gains in the 1970s because of their nonviolent organizing abilities. Women, gays/lesbians, disabled people, Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanics, and others minority groups strengthened their rights. All of these changes in the 1970s affirmed that a culture-wide movement was sensitized and activated to help create true respect for diversity in America. Of course, there was, and continues to be, push back from those who want the country to be like it was before these changes occurred. Thus, the culture war that rages today. How can we deescalate this war?
Dr. Robert Gould co-founded Portland State University's Graduate Program in Conflict Resolution in 1993 and served as its director until 2015. He also served a three-year term as Chair of PSU's Philosophy Department. He has presented a wide variety of papers, workshops, and seminars in topics related to philosophy and conflict resolution, including peace education, informal logic, ethics, and hate studies. In 1984, he co-founded the Oregon Peace Institute with Congresswoman Elizabeth Furse, and continues to serve on OPI's Board of Directors. More recently, he co-founded the Northwest Institute for Conflict Resolution, the Peace and Conflict Studies Consortium, and the Newhall Nonviolence Institute.